1. How did the Galapagos Islands come into existence? Galapagos Islands came into existence by chain of islands. The rifts had hydrothermal vents that belched sulphurous gases.
2. Were plate tectonics involved? No, they were not involved at all.
3. How old are the Galapagos Islands? Galapagos Islands are 478 years old.
4. What kinds of animals and plants are endemic to the islands? Variety of tortoise marine iguana prickly-pear cactus
white-tipped sharks Galapagos penguin masked boobies are endemic to the islands.
5. How do species become endemic? Species become endemic if they are popular to a geographic location.
6. Where did the original colonists come from and how did they get to the Galapagos? Original colonists came from Europe, they got to Galapagos by sailing.
7. What kind of special adaptations do the animals and plants have? How do adaptations evolve? The Finch were adapted to eat different types of food. Adaptations evolve based on natural selection.
8. How did these islands figure into Darwin’s ideas on evolution? The islands figure into Darwin's ideas, since he thought each island had different environmental conditions, leading to different adaptations on each island.
Part 2- Darwin's Finches
1. What is DNA fingerprinting and how is it done? DNA fingerprinting is used to identify the individual of each person. It is done by taking samples of body tissues.
2. How can we measure evolution? Measuring evolution is by how the seeds of plants vary in their hardness.
3. What is the difference between natural selection and evolution? Natural selection is the process in which the organism that is best adapted will live.Evolution is a change in an adaptation over time.
4. What is genetic drift and how could it be involved in evolution? Genetic drift is the change in frequency of a gene, it can be involved in evolution when the frequency is being high, the organism will have a higher chance to evolve with that gene.
5. What is resource partitioning and character displacement? Resource partitioning- when two species share a resource they both need. Character displacement- when species distribution overlaps.
6. What is sexual selection? A form of natural selection in which, according to Darwin's theory, the male or female is attracted by certain characteristics, form, color, behavior, etc., in the opposite sex; thus modifications of a special nature are brought about in the species.
7. How might one test if beak size is due to genetic or environmental factors? Change the factor in that area, and measure the beaks over time to see if it is environmental. To see if it's genetic, take their DNA and find a gene that determines the size of the beak.
8. If hybridization occurs during good times, what does this suggest about the degree of genetic differences between species? It shows that these genetic differences are more beneficial in good times.
9. What are reproductive isolating mechanisms and how do they evolve? Isolating mechanisms are characteristics that prevent them from reproducing. It evolves through the conditions of the environment.
10. Must populations of finches be separated in order to evolve into different species? No, finches don't need to be separated. They can create a hybrid species.
11. What causes an El Niño? When wind blows water which piles up. The wind will become weaker, which makes not as much cold water to pile up, leading to warming of water.
Part 2- The Tortoise and the Sea Cucumber
1. Should Kate have chosen to work on a different species than the tortoises that are being threatened? Kate shouldn't work on a different species since the tortious in Galapagos are rare and hardly ever seen.
2. Should Kate get involved in the politics of saving the islands, the way Dian Fossey did in trying to save the Mountain Gorilla? If kate wants to be involved in the politics of saving the islands she should actually do something to help out and make them not be extinct.
3. Should fishing, tourism, or inhabitants be allowed in the islands? Fishing, tourism and inhabitants should not be allowed since those animals could be extinct since theres only a few left and not so many to be fishing all the time.
4. How should the Ecuadorian government deal with the conflicts over the islands? Ecuadorian government should limit the people on how much they should get and have security check them when leaving the island on how much they are gotten. Also only let people fish in a certain season, and have 50 people fish every 2 months or so.
5. Extinction is a natural phenomenon. Why should we worry about whether a few species on some remote islands in the Pacific survive or not? These species are popular and makes the island unique, if they become extinct the island would not be popular and become like any other island out there.