- An effective operation measured by a comparison of production with cost.
- Energy effiency: measure of useful energy.
- 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: Any spontaneous change, Measure of randomness or disorder in a system.
- Implications of the 2nd law: During a chemical reaction, energy is converted from one to another (Chemical -> Mechanical (+heat)
- Measure of a product: % efficiency =( Output / input) x 100
- Output: mechanical work or energy.
- Input: Quantity of work or energy.
- Hydrogen: Chemically locked up in water an organic compounds.
- Input: all components entering the system.
- Output: all components leaving the system.
- Throughput: the flow of all components within the system.
- Negative feedback: Reverses the direction of the flow.
- Positive feedback: Changes the rate of the throughput, but not the direction.
- Incandescent light bulb: 95% is lost as heat.
- Internal combustion engine: 94% of energy is fuel wasted
- Nuclear Power plant: 92% wasted through nuclear
- Coal burning power plant: 66% energy released.